|History of Ghana
IDDRISU ABDUL HALIK
CBPM's 696th Member
City: Tamale, Ghana
|Medieval Ghana (4th - 13th Century):
The Republic of Ghana is named after the medieval Ghana
Empire of West Africa. The actual name of the Empire was
Wagadugu. Ghana was the title of the kings who ruled the
kingdom. It was controlled by Sundiata in 1240 AD, and
absorbed into the larger Mali Empire. (Mali Empire reached its
peak of success under Mansa Musa around 1307.)
Geographically, the old
Ghana is 500 miles north
of the present Ghana,
and occupied the area
between Rivers Senegal
|Some inhabitants of present
Ghana had ancestors linked
with the medieval Ghana. This
can be traced down to the
Mande and Voltaic people of
Dagomba and the Gonja.
|Gold Coast & European Exploration:
Before March 1957 Ghana was called the
Gold Coast. The Portuguese who came to
Ghana in the 15th Century found so much
gold between the rivers Ankobra and the
Volta that they named the place Mina -
meaning Mine. The Gold Coast was later
adopted to by the English colonisers.
Similarily, the French, equally impressed by
the trinkets worn by the coastal people,
named The Ivory Coast, Cote d'Ivoire.
|In 1482, the Portuguese built a castle in
Elmina. Their aim was to trade in gold, ivory
and slaves. In 1481 King John II of Portugal
sent Diego d'Azambuja to build this castle.
|In 1598 the Dutch joined them, and built forts at Komenda and Kormantsil. In 1637 they captured the
castle from the Portuguese and that of Axim in 1642 (Fort St Anthony). Other European traders joined
in by the mid 18th century. These were the English, Danes and Swedes. The coastline were dotted by
forts built by the Dutch, British and the Dane merchants. By the latter part of 19th century the Dutch
and the British were the only traders left. And when the Dutch withdrew in 1874, Britain made the Gold
Coast a crown colony.
By 1901 the Ashanti and the North were made a protectorate........MORE
Britain and the Gold Coast. The first Britons arrived in the early 19th century as traders in Ghana. But
with their close relationship with the coastal people especially the Fantes, the Ashantis became their
Economic and Social Development (Before 1957)
1874--Gold Mine in Wassa and Asante. Between 1946-1950 gold export rose from 6 million pounds to
9 million pounds.MORE
|I WOULD LIKE TO SAY HELLO TO EVERY BODY ON THIS
WONDERFUL NETWORK. AS PEOPLE WITH A COMMON
DESTINY AND MISSION, WE OUGHT TO BE UNITED,
RESPECTFUL TO EACH OTHERS OPINION, IN ORDER
TO SEE OUR WAY FORWARD. WE SHOULD TRY ALL
THAT WE CAN TO SUPPORT EACH BOTH PHYSICALLY
AND PSYCHOLOGICAL. WE CAN ONLY PROGRESS
WHEN WE SHARE OUR IDEAS, SKILLS, TALENTS, AND
VIEWS IN OTHERS TO COME OUT WITH A MEANINGFUL
SOLUTION TO OUR PROBLEMS THAT WE ARE
BY SO DOING OUR NAME WOULD BE UPHOLD AND OUR
OPPONENTS WE WOULD CHANGE FACES TO LOOK AT
US, SIMPLY BECAUSE THEY WEREN'T EXPECTING US
TO THAT LEVEL
IDDRISU ABDUL HALIK
|History of Ghana:
1. Medieval Ghana (4th - 13th Century)
2. Old Ghana Geographically
3. Northern Ghana and People
4. Gold Coast & European Exploration
5. Ghana 1482 - 1900
6. Ghana 1901 - 1944
7. Political Movements and Nationalism in Ghana (1945 -
8. Dr J. B. Danquah, Nkrumah, Paa Grant and ...
9. Independence for Ghana
|Political Movements and Nationalism in Ghana (1945 - 1957):
The educated Ghanaians had always been in the fore-front of constructive movements. Names that come into mind are --Dr Aggrey,
George Ferguson, John Mensah Sarbah. Others like king Ghartey IV of Winneba, Otumfuo Osei Agyeman Prempeh I raised the political
consciousness of their subjects. However, movements towards political freedom started soon after WWII.
This happened because suddenly people realised the colonisation was a form of oppression, similar to the oppression they have just
fought against. The war veterans had become radical. The myth surrounding the whiteman has been broken. The rulers were considered
economic cheats, their arogance had become very offensive. They had the ruling class attitude, and some of the young District
Commissioner (DC) treated the old chiefs as if they were their subjects. Local pay was bad. No good rural health or education policy. Up
to 1950 the Govt Secondary schools in the country were 2, the rest were built by the missionaries.
There was also the rejection of African culture to some extent. Some external forces also contributed to this feeling. African- Americans
such as Marcus Garvey and WE Du Bois raised strong Pan-African conscience.
In 1945 a conference was held in Manchester to promote Pan African ideas. This was attended by Nkrumah of Ghana, Azikwe of Nigeria
and Wallace Johnson of Sierra Leone. The India and Pakistani independence catalysed this desire.
Sir Alan Burns constitution of 1946 provided new legislative council that was made of the Governor as the President, 6 government
officials, 6 nominated members and 18 elected members.
The executive council was not responsible to the legislative council. They were only in advisory capacity, and the governor did not have
These forces made Dr J.B. Danquah to form the United Gold Coast Conversion (UGCC) in 1947. Nkrumah was invited to be the General
Secretary to this party. Other officers were George Grant (Paa Grant), Akuffo Addo, William Ofori Atta, Obetsebi Lamptey, Ako Agyei, and
J Tsiboe. Their aim was Independence for Ghana. They rejected the Burns constitution.