.
TheBlackList
President of Guinea Bissau Murdered
Monday, March 2, 2009 9:15 PM
From: mamakhandi306@aol.com

Guinea-Bissau – Renegade soldiers killed Guinea-Bissau President
Joao Bernardo Vieira in his palace on Monday, hours after a bomb
blast took the life of his rival, the fragile West African nation's armed
forces chief.

The military said in a statement broadcast on state radio that no coup
was in progress.

The armed forces statement said the military would respect the
constitutional order, in which the head of the parliament succeeds the
president in the event of his death.

The statement attributed Vieira's assassination to an "isolated" group of
unidentified soldiers and said the military was now hunting them down. (

Born Joáo Bernardo Vieira (pronounced "VYAY-ra"--rhymes with "Ira"), April
27, 1939 in Bissau, Portuguese Guinea (now Guinea- Bissau); known during
guerrilla war for independence from Portugal as "Nino;"
Education: Originally trained as an electrician; attended revolutionary leader
Amilcar Cabral's Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde
(PAIGC) Party school, Conakry, 1961; received subsequent military training
in Nanking, People's Republic of China;
Politics: Socialist.

Joined Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde (PAIGC),
1960; political commissioner and military chief, Catio region, c. 1961-64;
military commander, southern front, 1964; became member of PAIGC
political bureau, 1964-65; Council of war, vice president, 1965-67; Southern
front Political Bureau delegate, 1967-70; became member of war council
executive comm ittee, 1970-71; PAIGC permanent secretariat, 1973--;
named PAIGC deputy secretary- general, 1973; elected president of
People's National Assembly, 1973-78; named minister of armed forces,
1973-78; prime minister, 1978-84; became president, 1980; gained control
of defense and security cabinet posts, 1982; reelected president, 1989,
1994.

Life's Work

When Joáo Vieira became president of Guinea-Bissau by means of a nearly
bloodless coup in 1980, he inherited the leadership of one of the world's
poorest nations. The tiny West African country, sandwiched between Guinea
and Senegal, has a population of about one million, the vast majority of
which is engaged in subsistence farming. Throughout his presidency, Vieira
has been faced with an enormous challenge--to create an economy that
functions adequately in a country still reeling from centuries of colonial rule.
Moreover, he has had to attempt this while stuck between two conflicting
philosophies.

On one side is the blueprint for a socialist society conceived by Amilcar
Cabral, the main architect of Guinea-Bissau's battle for independence from
Portugal. Cabral, who was murdered in 1973, is considered by many to have
been one of the most important political thinkers to emerge in Africa since
World War II. The other path is the one proffered by organizations such as
the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, Western sources of
assistance that Vieira has been forced to court in the face of harsh
economic realities.

Vieira was born in=2 01939 in Bissau, the capital of what was then known as
Portuguese Guinea. Although he was trained as an electrician, Vieira
became interested in politics at an early age. By the end of the 1950s, the
climate in the nation was ripe for rebellion. The central figure in Guinea-
Bissau's revolutionary movement was Cabral, whose theories on class
relations and the connections between culture and liberation movements
have been influential across Africa. In the mid-1950s, Cabral founded the
Partido Africano da Independencia da Guine e Cabo Verde (PAIGC), a party
committed to the liberation of Guinea-Bissau and the neighboring island
nation of Cape Verde from Portugal. Vieira joined Cabral's PAIGC in 1960,
and he soon became a key player in the uprising that ensued.

Led by Cabral, a guerrilla war against the Portuguese was launched in
1961. The Catio region in the southern part of the country came under
PAIGC control quickly, and it became the party's base of operations. Vieira,
who had already demonstrated a great deal of skill as a leader and military
strategist, was placed in charge of both political and military operations in
the region. He served in this capacity for roughly four years, during which he
spent some time in China learning the finer points of guerrilla warfare. Vieira
was known to his comrades as "Nino," and this remained his nom de guerre
for the duration of the struggle.

In 1964 Vieira was appointed chief of military operations for the entire
southern front, an important arena of conflict. Over the next decade, the
PAIGC gradually gained control of Guinea-Bissau's countryside, and Vieira
established himself as a military hero along the way. In some areas, tales of
his exploits were turned into songs by local musicians. As greater portions of
the country fell into PAIGC hands, new administrative bodies were formed to
replace their Portuguese counterparts and to organize efforts to fix the
agricultural problems caused by the war. After the PAIGC's First Party
Congress was held in 1964, Vieira became a member of the party's political
bureau.

From that point on, Vieira's ascent through party ranks was rapid. From
1965 through 1967 he served as vice-president of the party's war council.
For the next few years, Vieira was assigned to the southern front as the
ranking member of the political bureau. He gained responsibility for military
operations on the national level in 1970, and the following year he earned
memberships on the war council's executive committee and on the PAIGC's
permanent secretariat.

The revolution, as well as Vieira's career, began to pick up even more steam
in 1973. In January, Cabral was assassinated by what were believed to be
Portuguese agents. The death of Cabral created a void in the revolutionary
movement's leadership. In the shuffle that followed, Vieira was named
deputy secretary-general of the PAIGC. Shortly thereafter, the Republic of
Guinea-Bissau unilaterally declared its independence under the leadership
of Luiz Cabral, Amilcar's brother. Elections were=2 0held in the parts of the
country that had already been liberated, and Vieira was chosen president of
the People's National Assembly.

Portugal officially withdrew from Guinea-Bissau in September of 1974,
following its own military coup. Guinea-Bissau's transition to an independent
state, however, was not entirely peaceful. In the absence of Amilcar Cabral's
unequivocal leadership, the PAIGC was plagued by internal power struggles
for the next several years. The question of unity between Guinea-Bissau
and Cape Verde, which was also under PAIGC rule, was the source of much
of the tension. To a large degree, this was rooted in racial and cultural
differences between black Guineans on the mainland and Cape Verde's
mixed-race population, much of which was of Portuguese descent, better
educated, and light-skinned.

In the first government of Guinea-Bissau's independent era, Vieira was
made one of four members of the PAIGC's permanent secretariat, the
highest-ranking body in the country's decision-making process. He was also
named minister for the armed forces. In the summer of 1978, Prime Minister
Francisco Mendez died in a car accident. Vieira was chosen as his
replacement. Over the next few years, the debate over plans for the
unification of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde intensified, as did the power
struggle between Luiz Cabral and the increasingly powerful Vieira.

Many Guineans resented being ruled by Cape Verdeans, who maintained a
powerful presence in the government after having served as the local admi
nistrators of the Portuguese colonial government. In 1979 Cabral removed
Vieira from his post as head of the armed forces, fearing that he had
become too powerful. By 1980 the country's economy had deteriorated
enough to generate widespread discontent with the Cabral government. In
an attempt to further erode Vieira's influence, Cabral proposed a new
constitution in November of 1980 that increased his powers as president
while reducing those of Vieira's prime minister position.

Four days after the passage of the new constitution, Vieira led a coup that
ousted Cabral from power. Since he had maintained the nearly complete
loyalty of the military, bloodshed was minimal, and the change was cheered
throughout most of the countryside. Once in power, Vieira reaffirmed his
commitment to the socialist policies first outlined by Amilcar Cabral. He then
scrapped the country's existing state council and council of ministers,
replacing them with a nine-member revolutionary council. All of its members
were black Guineans, and seven of them were military officers. Over the
next year or so, Vieira worked to solidify his control over the nation. A
reshuffling of the government in 1982 gave him control of the defense and
security cabinet posts in addition to his roles as head of state and
commander-in-chief of the military.

A series of challenges to Vieira's leadership took place over the next several
years. In 1983, amid rumors of an impending coup attempt, Vieira had
several members of the pre-coup leadership arrested. In addition, three
cabinet members were fired for embezzlement. This was apparently part of a
power struggle between Vieira and Prime Minister Vitor Saude Maria. Maria
was opposed to Vieira's proposed constitutional changes, which would
eliminate the position of prime minister, a situation eerily similar to the one
that preceded Vieira's own overthrow of Cabral.

Maria was relieved of duty in 1984, as were several other party members
who had supported him. Another attempted coup was thwarted in 1985. This
one was led by Paulo Correia, the first vice- president and the second-
highest-ranking PAIGC officer. Correia, who was opposed to Vieira's
economic stabilization program, was brought to trial and subsequently
executed along with five of his accomplices.

Through the second half of the 1980s, Vieira focused on liberalizing the
economy of Guinea-Bissau, working in cooperation with the World Bank and
International Monetary Fund. In 1987 he instituted a set of austerity
measures supported by these organizations, including a 41 percent
devaluation of the country's peso. The resulting hardships led to rumors of
another coup attempt and the arrest of about 20 army officers, though Vieira
denied that any attempted overthrow had taken place. Elections were held in
June of 1989, and Vieira was reelected to the presidency for another five
years.

In 1990 Vieira announced that a multiparty system would be established in
Guinea-Bissau, and commissions were organized to facilitate the necessary
constitutional changes. Plans were outlined in January of 1991 for a
transition to be completed by 1993 that would end the PAIGC's role as de
facto government and separate the armed forces from the party. Meanwhile,
another coup attempt was widely reported toward the end of 1990, though
again it was vigorously denied by Vieira. New parties began springing up in
1992 in preparation for the promised free elections. In October of that year,
Vieira again reshuffled his cabinet, firing eight ministers who had been in the
government since its 1974 independence.

Vieira announced the following month that elections would be postponed
until March of 1993 due to conflict over the process. Just prior to the new
date, however, elections were again postponed because of another
attempted coup that included the murder of Major Robalo de Pina,
commander of Vieira's elite guard, the Rapid Deployment Force. Fifty
people were arrested, including Joáo da Costa, leader of the Partido de
Renovac`o e Desenvolvimento (PRD), the leading opposition party. Vieira
then announced that the long- awaited elections would take place in March
of 1994. Da Costa meanwhile emerged as the leading opposition candidate
against Vieira. In February, da Costa was acquitted of charges that he was
involved in any coup attempt when several witnesses retracted their
statements. By this time, however, the elections had been delayed again
due to a lack of preparation. When they were held, Vieira emerged
victoriously though he only garnered 52 percent of the popular vote.
=0 A
In the dog-eat-dog world of Third World politics, Joáo Vieira has been the
model of resilience. His ability to muster the support of powerful people and
consolidate it at the most crucial moments has been remarkable. In this
respect, his training and expertise in military strategy have paid off
handsomely. Nevertheless, the nation that he leads is still among the world's
poorest, and his attempts to modernize the economy of Guinea-Bissau have
yet to prove fruitful. Vieira has perhaps given up on the socialist dreams of
his political mentor, Amilcar Cabral. Whether his own dream of a thriving and
economically independent Guinea-Bissau can become a reality remains to
be seen.
CBPM Index:
Guinea-Bissau
Become a Member
CBPM Store
Sponsored by the Collective Black People  Movement (CBPM)
.
Tarafes de Cacheu
Natural Park
mangrove swamp: in
the swamps, looking
for Rhinos
Bissau: the market -
people and products
Bissau: market -
selling pills
Cacheu region:
hunting in the tall
grass
CBPM Member Pages:  
please support those who make the
collective possible
:
CBPM Member Pages Enter
Here

I & I Works - Construction - Jewelry -
Reggae
Ikouba's Oil & Incense
Irie Visions Marketing
Iron Jerk - Grilled Food
Isis Bookkeeping Services
Isis Hats and Things (Crocheting)
Jah Tech - Auto Repair Services
Jah Warriors - Positive Live Music
J.W. Home Repair
Juice Productions - Dance Classes
Julius Nyerere/CBPM UNIA-ACL Atlanta
Division 421
Kangen Water
Keep it Locked -Natural Hair Salon
Kemwear Manufacturing
Kids Stuff
King Ras - Car Wash
King Quest Konnections
Kingdom Fortunes - Career
Development
Kwame Ture Leadership Institute
Last Laff Records - Hip Hop
Leek Squad - Computer Repair
LIA Merchant
Life in Africa
Lini Songs of Wisdom
Lion of Judah - CD Sound System
Love Africa Movement - Int'l Social
Movement
Love left on the Wagon - Blues
Love Livin' Naturally
Macford Enterprise - Trading w/
Caribbean
Mahala Corporation - Bed and
Breakfast
Mahdi Creations - Fine Arts
Mama Faye - Pinky Art & more...
Mattie Childs Apartment & Home
Listings
Moanbessa Electrical
Modern Manna - Personal/Hair Care
Mothers of the Earth Soul Yoga
Mountain Movers Worldwide -
Financial Ser.
Mute Testament - Art
Nation Time Fashion
New Black Panther Party (NBPP)
Ngozi Works - Jewelry
Nubianations - One People, One World
One Stop Shop - Bags, Purse, &
Jewelry
Organic Roots Café - Live Food
Our Daily Bread  - Caribbean
Restaurant
Outlaw Radeo7 - Hip Hop & Reggae
OverGround RR - Communications
Network
Pan-African News & Information
Service
Pan Afrikan Struggle Inherited
Poetic Privilege - Hip Hop and more
Problem Solvers Unlimited (PSU)
PSU - Collective Economic Plan (CEP)
Project SOAR - Civic & Civil Rights
Prolific Screen Printing
PZP Paintings - Acrylic Paintings
R & R Errand Service
RaggaMuffin Original - Food, Clothing,
& Shelter
Rankin Media - Reggae
Ras Clay I - Away from Africa
RESCOD Ghana - Village Project
Restore Your Own Health
Revolutionary Thought Network
Riding the Jewell (Retail)
Right Touch Massage
Rivers of Living Waters Academy
RoyalFam Records - Dr. Vegan
Royal Inheritance - Network Marketing
Royalty - Lini Songs
Ruff Life Films
Sankofa Youth Culture Camp
Select Effects Conglomerate
Seventh Son - Writer
Shabazz Photos
Shea Essentials -Bath & Body
Products
Street Voice Music - Indep. Record
Label
Sweet Auburn Grocery
Tag Team Black Business Network
Tech Sound Reggae
Tephillah - Hair Beads and more...
Testimonies and Revelations of
Rastafari
The Amazing - History of Ghana
The Elders, Inc.
The Guest Room - Interior Decorating
The Independent Think Tank
The Roaring Lion - Spoken Word, Hip
Hop...
Top Flight Painting
Top Shottas
Touch of Class - Hand Made crafts
Travel Bound - Travel Services
UnderGround Artist Development
UNIA-ACL - Global Black Government
'Vagabon - Reggae Music
Viscion - Education
Vuka Music
Wealth Building Network
West End Hanyman - Electrical &
Farming
Xaa'EL Heru El- BEY - Wholistic
Healing
York Nice - Hip Hop
Zeniam Publications - Publishing
Company
More on the Collective
10-10-50
27 Cents Each Day
52nd International Convention of the
UNIA-ACL
Administration Department
Advertise on the CBPM website
African (Black) History
African National Congress
African People Power Plant
African Pledge
African Revolution Class
Amharic Classes
Angola
Arts and Crafts
Barack Obama News
Barack Obama Pictures
Become a Member to CBPM
Benefits of Membership
Black Businesses
Black Cross Nurses
Black Organizations
Black Radio
Blacks in the City Course page 1, 2, 3
Books
Brothers Union
Building a New Black Economy
Burkina Faso
California
CBPM Advisor(s)
CBPM Construction
CBPM Departments
CBPM Ecopnomic Plan
CBPM History
CBPM International
CBPM Member Web Pages
CBPM New York
CBPM News Page
CBPM Massachusetts
CBPM Massachusetts my space page
CBPM Movements
CBPM USA
Chronicles of Unity - A Nubianations
Publication
Comments to the CBPM
Congo
Costa Rica
Culture Center Pictures
Culture Center Videos
Cynthia McKinney & a Black Economy
Dads on Duty
Darfur
Dating & Relationships
Detroit
Discrimination Report Form
Earth Day 2008 Shanti Villa Institute
Education Department
Elders
Employment Department
Enter Me in What our People are Doing
England
Ethiopia
Ethiopian World Federation - Local #49
Farming
Florida
Films
Free William J. Mayo
Gabon
Georgia News
Get Paid for Uniting our People
Get Your Web Page Here
Georgia News
Ghana
Global African Experience Course
Guinea-Bissau
Gullah Inc.
Habesha
Haile Selassie I
Haiti
Harambee Radio and Television
Health
Hip Hop
Illinois
Images of Barack Obama
Incarceration Department
International News
Jamaica
Jobs for our People
Julius Nyerere/CBPM Atlanta Division
421
Louisianna
Marcus Garvey Speaks
Member Web Pages
Membership Department
Michigan Listings
Mississippi
Missouri
Movementunes - #1 Source for
Positive Music
Moving
Mumia Adu Jamal
Namibia
Nation Building Time
National Action Network (NAN)
National News
Need a Home?
Need a Job?
New York
New York Listings
New Black Panther Party
New Members to the CBPM
CBPM Member
Pages:
 please support
those who make the collective
possible
:
CBPM Member Pages
Enter
Here
1 Diamond Coaching, Inc -
Life/Spiritual Coach
10-10-50
A+ Tutoring
Abba Goel
Aboriginal Blim Blam - Vending
Afreeka Live - Reconnecting
the Black Family
Africa For the Africans - Tours
to Africa
African Community Center for
Unity and  
- Self-Determination -
Functional Unity
Agape Auto Sales - Used Cars
Akachi - African Jewelry and
Leather Works
Alpha Blacks - Singer, Jamaica
ASAP - A Safe Passage
AZ WaterFront Oasis - Vacation
Destination
Basit - Good People Connect
Bigg Belly Records - Record
Label
Black Kung Fu - Clothing
Black Unity - Network
Blackhandz Entertainment -
Video Prod.
Black Male Community
Empowerment  
- Forum (BMCEF)
Black Star Project Atlanta -
Father Initiative
Blast Off - Rockets, Kites, and
more...
Bomani Computer Services
Bottom Line Services -
Bookkeeping
Cash Flo - Hip Hop
Cipher He Records -
Composition/Music
Concerned Dads - Father
Initiative
Cultural Dance - From Ghana
Culture Wear - Cultural Items
CMS Health Services -
Consulting
Daddy' s Pipes - Hand Carved
works
Diamondz N the Ruff -
Promotions
Doc Rehab 2000 - Home
Repair
Doing it God's Way - Media
Broadcasting
DuBMan
Eden Fresh  - Natural Black
Products
Eclecticenvi - Clothes Design
Ecollective Styles - Unity
Educated Investments
Elite Barber and Hair
Empress Travel
ESP Enterprises, Inc. -
Management & Dev.
E. T. / M.G CPA Network - Tax &
Accounting
Ethiopian World Federation
(EWF)
- Mahel Safari #49
Faye Natallie - Cultural Art
Works
FOP (Full of Possibilities) Art
Fulera's Trading - Trade with
Africa
GMC Cleaning
God's Children & Elders Think
Tank
God's Gifted Divine Dry
Cleaners and Laundry
God's Precious Angels - Day
Care
Good People Connect - Social
Site
Groove 492 - Salon Boutique
Gullah Inc.
Habesha
Highly Modified Autos
Hit-Ville Music Group - Hip Hop
Hope of Life Foundation -
Orphan Children
.
Counter
Press Release from PAIGC on Reactionary Coup
d'Etat of April 12, 2012 in Guinea-Bissau
by PerAnkh Khamniversity on Sunday, April 15, 2012 at 1:37pm ·